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Glossary

AS-PURCHASED (A.P.) - The condition or cost of an item as it is purchased or received from a supplier.

AS-SERVED (A.S.) - The weight or size of a food item as sold or served after processing or cooking.

ASIAN STYLE - This item, also referred to as traditional Asian Style refers most commonly to ducklings and is a carcass processed as a whole animal except that the head and feet are left intact.

BAKE - To cook by dry heat. When applied to meat, it is called roasting.

BAKE - To cook by dry heat, usually in an oven, but may be done over hot ashes, coals or on heated metals oc stones. Baked meat is usually referred to as "roasted," rather than baked. A traditional exception is "Baked Ham."

BARBECUE - To cook meat slowly on a grill, spit, or over coals. While cooking, meat is usually basted with a sauce.

BASTE - To moisten meat with a liquid while cooking to add flavor and to prevent drying of the surface.

BINDERS - Approved edible substances used for stabilizing, binding, and changing texture and shape of food.

BOIL - To cook in water or other liquid in which bubbles rise continually and break on the surface.

BOIL - To cook in heated water oc other water-based liquid at 212F., with bubbles rising rapidly and breaking on the surface. (Water boils at i12F at sea level; altitude effects temperature.)

BONED BREASTS - Sometimes labeled cutlets. One hundred percent edible light meat. Boneless breasts may or may not include skin; cutlets normally are sold without skin.

BRAISE - To brown meat in a small amount of oil or fat, then simmered in a small amount of liquid in a covered pan.

BREADED - Product that is coated with breading and/or batter, not to exceed 30% of the weight f the finished product. Product m first be dipped in batter r moistened with liquid to assure adherence of the breading.

BREADED - Product that is coated with less than 30 percent of n edible substance, usually flour or bread crumbs. Product m first be dipped in batter to enhance the adherence of the breading.

BREADED AND PRE-BROWNED (BREADING SET IN HOT OIL) - Uncooked breaded products with the breading set in hot oil must state "ready to cook" or some other term to indicate the product is not cooked or show cooking instructions on the label.

BROIL - To cook by direct heat, either under or over the source of heat; grill.

BROILERS - Young chickens produced for meat. The terms broilers and fryers are interchangeable.

BROILERS FOR DEBONING - Five to six pounds ready-to-cook weight basis, that are hand-deboned for nuggets, patties, strips, and similar boneless products.

BUFFALO WINGS - Deep-fried chicken wings served with a hot sauce and a blue cheese dressing. The wing is prepared by separating the drummette and midjoint and removing the wing tip.

CAPON - Six to 10 pounds ready-to-cook, surgically unsexed male broiler.

CARCASS - The resulting product after slaughtering and dressing a meat animal. Beef and pork normally are split into two sides while lamb and veal remain intact as whole carcasses.

CHICKEN PAWS - The lower portion of the chicken foot remaining after cutting the chicken leg into two parts just below the spurpoint.

CHUNKED AND FORMED - Meat product, which consists of meat chunks up to one Inch Square and formed into a desired shape. The chunks are usually produced by very coarse grinding or dicing, then massaged (tumbled) prior to forming.

COCK - A male chicken also called a rooster. Neither the whole bird nor the parts from the cock are normally available since the carcass meat is primarily used for further processed products.

COMB - A fleshy or cartilaginous variable serrated shaped appendage on the head of the bird.

COMMINUTED - Meat ground or chopped to small particle size, as for frankfurters, bologna, hamburger or other ground meats, etc.

CORNISH GAME HENS - A ready-to-cook hen that is about 14-22 ounces (sometimes referred to as Rock Cornish Hen).

CURED - A process of preserving meat, e.g., salting, smoking, drying, or aging.

CUTLET, POULTRY - Cutlets may be either slices from a whole muscle or they may be fabricated. In either instance the labeling for the cutlet must properly describe it, e.g., poultry cutlet chopped and formed.

DARK MEAT - Drumstick, thigh, thigh trim meat, and dark trim meat of chickens and turkeys.

DRESSED - The cleaned, defeathered and eviscerated poultry which is ready for sale. Also termed ready-to-cook (RTC).

DUCK PRESS - A cooking tool that uses pressure to extract the juices from the carcass of fowl.

EVISCERATION - The process of removing the internal organs.

FEATHER - The horny type structures covering the body of the bird. They are removed from the carcass at the first stage of processing.

FILET/FILLET - Boneless strip of meat, usually referring only to beef.

FOIE GRAS - Any fattened fowl liver; most common varieties are duck and goose.

FOREQUARTER - The front or anterior portion of a beef side, typically including ribs 1-12.

FORESADDLE - The unsplit forward portion of a veal, lamb or mutton carcass, consisting of the primal rib, shoulder, foreshank and breast, representing slightly more than half the carcass weight. It is typically separated from the hindsaddle between the 12th and 13th ribs.

FORMED, MOLDED, PRESSED - Chopped poultry, chunks of poultry including sections may be formed, molded, and pressed to make poultry roasts, rolls, logs, etc.

FREE RANGE - Chickens or turkeys which are raised on a farm and allowed unlimited access to the area outside the grow-out houses. Free range chickens are usually part of small flocks and may eat only simple mixtures of grains and what they forage.

FREEZER BURN - Discoloration due to loss of moisture and oxidation in freezer-stored meats.

FRESH - Meats that have not been frozen, cured, smoked, pre-cooked, or otherwise processed into a form changed from the original meat.

FROZEN - Meat that has been reduced in temperature to be-low the freezing temperature of meat.

FRY - To cook in fat or oil. Applied especially to cooking in a small amount of fat; also called panfrying. Deep frying: cooking in a deep layer of fat.

FRYER - A young chicken produced for meat. A term often used interchangeably with "broiler."

FSIS - Food Safety and Inspection Service

FURTHER-PROCESSEO POULTRY PRODUCTS - Poultry products prepared be cooking, smoking, grinding, deboning, dehydrating or otherwise pro-cessing beyond the cut-up stage so as to change form, appearance, texture or to keep quality. Fur- ther-processed products include nuggets, patties, hot dogs, pot pies, and hundreds of other products.

GIBLETS - The liver, heart, and gizzard of a poultry carcass. Although often packaged with them, the neck of a bird is not a giblet.

GROSS WEIGHT - The weight of products plus their packaging and packing materials, including the shipping container and closure materials such as strapping.

GROW-OUT HOUSE - Building used for brooding and raising broilers and turkeys.

HACCP (PRONOUNCED HASSUP) - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points. A system in which potential (critical) problems are identified and a safeguards are implemented.

HALAL AND ZABIAH HALAL - Meat and poultry products prepared under Islamic authority.

H A M - Meat from the hind leg of pork that has been cured and smoked.

HATCHERY - A facility housing large egg incubators in which baby chicks are hatched.

HEN - The adult female of several species of poultry.

HINDQUARTER - The posterior portion of the beef side remaining after being separated from the 12-rib forequarter, containing the 13th rib.

HINDSADDLE - Unsplit hind half of a veal, lamb or mutton carcass. (See Foresaddle.)

HRI - Hotels, restaurants, and institutions. Used as a synonym for the foodservice industry.

INJECTED - Meat cuts which have had marinade or moisture solutions introduced throughout the muscles by injection or tumbling. Also referred to as pumped.

IQF - Individually quick frozen. Cuts that have been individually frozen at extremely low temperatures immediately after processing.

JAPANESE QUAIL - A type of quail that are prolific egg producers and raised primarily for this purpose.

KABOB - Boneless dices of meat which are generally placed on skewers and grilled. Also referred to as Brochette Meat and Cube Meat.

KOSHER - Meat from animals slaughtered under Rabbinical supervision.

LIQUID TENDERIZATION - To use any enzymatic solutions to tenderize meat cuts.

LIVE WEIGHT - Weight of the live bird.

LONG ISLAND DUCKLING - Early production of ducklings in the United States originated on Long Island and the ducklings came to be identified as those from this region. They were produced from strains of white pekin ducks that were imported from China. The designation Long Island Duckling is geographically restricted to ducklings which have been raised on Long Island, New York. Today, white pekin ducklings are primarily raised in the Midwest and Western sections of the country and may sometimes be referred to as Long Island Style Ducklings.

MARINATE - To treat with a marinade.

MARKET WEIGHT - The weight of the chicken after it has been processed (defeathered, eviscerated and cleaned). Also termed dressed weight or ready-to-cook (RTC) weight.

MARROW - The edible, nutrient-rich fatty substance found in the center of bones

MEDALLlONS - Usually small, thin slice of tender meat. Also referred to as Tournedos.

MSP - Mechanically separated poultry. This refers to poultry raw materials or food products made by rechanically separating bone from muscle tissue of carcasses and parts of poultry carcasses. MSP must be declared as mechanically separated chicken or turkey on the label.

MUTTON - Meat from a nature lamb, usually 12-to-24-months-old or older. Sometimes called "Yearling Mutton."

NEW YORK-DRESSED - Fowl with only the blood and feathers removed. Does not apply to turkeys.

PANFRY - To cook in a small amount of fat.

PARTS - Ready-to-cook chicken legs (thighs and drum- sticks), breasts, or wings.

PIGEON - A mature squab. Not readily available for foodservice. The meat is tough and the skin is coarse textured.

POUSSIN - A baby chicken raised on grain products.

PROTEIN - An essential nutrient. Foods of animal origin are the only source of high biological quality protein. Animal protein is "complete," because it contains the eight essential amino acids in the correct proportions to build, maintain and repair human body tissues, and to strengthen the body's defense mechanisms against infection and disease. They are called "essential," because the human system cannot synthesize these amino acids. (Other food sources contain protein but none have the eight essential amino acids in the required proportions, as do meat foods.)

PULLET - A young female chicken before she begins to lay eggs.

RATITE - A large flightless bird having a flat breastbone. Common ratites are ostriches, emus, and rheas. Since these birds are slaughtered and processed like livestock, they are designated as livestock by the USDA and not included in this publication.

READY TO - COOK (RTC) - Dressed, whole-bodied carcass or parts ready for the consumer to cook.

ROOSTER - See Cock.

SALMONELLA - Salmonella is a general term applied to a group of about 2,000 closely related types of natural bacteria that are found almost everywhere in our environment. Odorless and tasteless, salmonella is found on all types of uncooked foods. The bacteria are easily destroyed by cooking.

SEAR - To brown surface of meat by short application of intense heat.

SHRINK WRAP - Plastic self-adhering wrapping material that tightly conforms to the shape of meat or cartons.

SMOKED - The process of treating or curing meat with smoke as both a flavoring and a preservative.

SNUDE - The fleshy or cartilaginous variable serrated shaped appendage on the head of a turkey.

STIR FRY - A method of cooking small pieces of meat in a small amount of cooking oil over intense heat, usually in a wok. The meat is stirred constantly and is cooked in a brief time.

TENDERLOIN - The inner pectoral muscle that lies adjacent to the rib cage parallel to the breast bone.

TSP - Trisodium phosphate, a solution permitted as use for an antimicrobial agent on poultry.

USDA GRADE A - A symbol applied to chickens or turkeys that have passed inspection by U.S. Department of Agriculture officials and meet certain high standards of quality, size, and appearance criteria.

VACUUM AGING - Aging in sealed vacuum packaging, as contrasted with traditional methods. Often called "wet aging." (See Aging).

VACUUM PACKED - The process of packaging meat cuts in laminated plastic bags or pouches. A vacuum is drawn on the bags and they are sealed for long-term refrigerated storage.

WHITE MEAT - Meat from the breast, wing, or scapula of turkeys and chickens. No skin is included.

WHOLE CHICKEN - Ready-to-cook chicken that is not cut-up, includes giblets and meat.

WHOLESOMENESS - Refers to freedom from pathogenic microorganisms or other harmful bacteria. This is influenced by the health of the animal and by proper sanitation, handling, and storage.

WILD DUCK - Wild ducks such as Mallard, Canvasback, Teal, Widgeon, etc. are protected by law under international migratory bird treaties.

WILD GOOSE - Wild geese such as those from Canada are protected by law under international migratory bird treaties.

WISHBONE PORTION (PULLEY BONES) - The wishbone portion consists of the pulley bone together with their covering muscle and skin excluding the neck skin. The portion may be produced from any whole breast. The portion included the hypocledium end of the wishbone and the separation occurs along a line approximately halfway between the wishbone and the sternal spine to the point where the wishbone joins the shoulder.

WOG - Term given to broilers sold without giblets and neck.

YOUNG ROASTER CHICKEN - A broiler that is 6 to 8 pounds, ready-to-cook, sold fresh or frozen through grocery retail. The broiler is sold either whole or cut-up.

YOUNG MEAT CHICKENS - Although usually referring to broilers, this category includes broilers (more than 90 percent of the young meat chickens category), young roasters, Cornish game hens, capons, and certain other special types of young poultry meat.

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